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EVOO and Health

  • A dilute-and-inject liquid-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in extra-virgin olive oil

    BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a diverse group of organic compounds characterized by the fusion of two or more benzene rings arranged in various structural forms. Due to their harmful effects on human health, it is essential to implement monitoring systems and preventive measures to regulate human exposure. Given the affinity of PAHs for lipids, extensive research has been focused on their presence in vegetable oils. This study aimed to develop an on-line…

  • Antiangiogenic Potential of an Olive Oil Extract: Insights from a Proteomic Study

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a staple of the Mediterranean diet, is rich in phenolic compounds recognized for their potent bioactive effects, including anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects on vascular health remain relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined the impact of a “picual” EVOO extract from Jaén, Spain, on endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed the modulation of angiogenesis-related processes. In subsequent in vitro experiments, the EVOO…

  • 1-Acetoxypinoresinol, a Lignan from Olives: Insight into Its Characterization, Identification, and Nutraceutical Properties

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a symbol of the Mediterranean diet, constituting its primary source of fat. The beneficial effect of EVOO is strictly related to the presence of fatty acids and polyphenols, bioactive compounds endowed with nutraceutical properties. Among EVOO polyphenols, lignans possess a steroid-like chemical structure and are part of the phytoestrogen family, which is renowned for its health properties. The natural lignans (+)-pinoresinol and 1-acetoxypinoresinol (1-AP) are…

  • The effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on fat mass and fat-free mass for breastfeeding mothers (0-24 months) in Makassar City, Indonesia

    CONCLUSIONS: In the intervention group that was given EVOO, it was possible to maintain%FM and%FFM in the normal percentage range, while in the control group, there was a decrease from the normal to less/low range.

  • Effect of virgin olive oil as spreadable preparation on atherosclerosis compared to dairy butter in Apoe-deficient mice

    CONCLUSION: Extra virgin olive oil prepared in spreadable form maintained the delay in atheroma plaque progression compared to butter.

  • Dilation of Pregnant Rat Uterine Arteries with Phenols from Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is Endothelium-Dependent and Involves Calcium and Potassium Channels

    During pregnancy, uterine vasculature undergoes significant circumferential growth to increase uterine blood flow, vital for the growing feto-placental unit. However, this process is often compromised in conditions like maternal high blood pressure, particularly in preeclampsia (PE), leading to fetal growth impairment. Currently, there is no cure for PE, partly due to the adverse effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on maternal and fetal health. This study aimed to investigate the vasodilator…

  • NMR Analysis of Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Epirus Region of Greece with Emphasis on Selected Phenolic Compounds

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is recognized for its numerous health benefits, attributed to its rich phenolic components. NMR has emerged as a prevalent technique for precisely identifying these compounds. Among Mediterranean countries, Greece stands as the third-largest producer of olives, with the Epirus region notably advancing in olive cultivation, contributing significantly to the dynamic growth of the region. In this study, an NMR method was employed based on the acquisition of a ¹H NMR…

  • Extra-Virgin Olive Oil in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review of Cellular, Animal, and Clinical Studies

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by several pathological hallmarks, including the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Current treatment options include monoclonal antibody drugs, acetylcholinesterase, and n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists. Although those treatments provide some improvements in patients’ quality of…

  • Daily olive oil intake is feasible to reduce trigeminal neuralgia facial pain: A pilot study

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is thought to contribute to neuroprotection and, thus, may influence pain symptoms experienced by adults with demyelination-related trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This study aimed to determine the feasibility of daily intake of EVOO and its potential to alleviate facial pain of TN. Adults, self-reporting as female and affected by TN, were enrolled in a 16-week nonblinded, parallel study. After a 4-week baseline, participants were randomized to 60 mL/day EVOO or control…

  • Chemical Data and Relationships for a Scoring Algorithm of Extra Virgin Olive Oil’s Nutritional Value

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a valuable product and is highly appreciated by consumers for its great nutritional value. However, to date, there has been a lack of uniform systems capable of ranking the nutritional value of EVOO based on its chemical composition in terms of macro- and micronutrients (including phenolic compounds and tocopherols). The aim of this study was to propose a scoring algorithm to rank the nutritional value of EVOO samples, considering their chemical composition in…

  • Oleocanthal, an Antioxidant Phenolic Compound in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO): A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Its Potential in Inflammation and Cancer

    BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is linked to various health benefits, especially the consumption of olive oil as a key component. Multiple studies highlight its advantages, particularly due to its fatty acid composition and additional components like phenolic compounds. A significant antioxidant compound, oleocanthal, known for its antioxidant properties, has gained attention in the pharmaceutical industry for its anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. It shows promise in addressing…

  • An Appraisal of the Oleocanthal-Rich Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and Its Potential Anticancer and Neuroprotective Properties

    Dietary consumption of olive oil represents a key pillar of the Mediterranean diet, which has been shown to exert beneficial effects on human health, such as the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases like cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, among others. These health benefits are partly mediated by the high-quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), which is produced mostly in Mediterranean countries and is directly made from olives, the fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.)….

  • Body weight gain and control: beneficial effect of extra virgin olive oil versus corn oil in an experimental model of mammary cancer

    Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer, the most common malignancy among women worldwide. We have previously described different effects of high-fat diets on mammary experimental carcinogenesis. In this work, we analyzed the animal growth data obtained in six experimental assays, in healthy and carcinogen-induced rats undergoing different dietary interventions. The animals were fed with three experimental diets administered at different periods of development: a control low-fat diet,…

  • Study protocol for FIBROKIT: a new tool for fibromyalgia diagnosis and patient follow-up

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex disease that is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and has great economic impact. FM prevalence is about 2% to 4% worldwide, affecting mainly middle-aged women, and its complex pathophysiology complicates diagnosis, treatment and the findings of solid biomarkers. Previous studies have suggested an association between the disease and oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolism, intestinal microbiota and inflammation, providing sufficient data to support…

  • Storage Effects on Bioactive Phenols in Calabrian Monovarietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils Based on the EFSA Health Claim

    The beneficial properties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on lipids blood levels were recognized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with a health claim, specifically referring to EVOOs containing at least 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoids derivatives per 20 g of oil. The main purpose of the work was to characterize the phenolic profile of two commercially available Calabrian monovarietal EVOOs (Nocellara del Belice, VN; Dolce di Rossano, VDR), and to study the effect of…

  • In vitro study of potential prebiotic properties of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils

    Olive oil, essential ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, is attracting a growing interest due to increasing evidence on its beneficial effects on human health. This study investigated whether extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) possess prebiotic properties. Twenty different monovarietal EVOO samples from 5 Marche region cultivars (Italy) were studied. The prebiotic activity of EVOOs was assessed monitoring the selective stimulation of gut bacterial species and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)…

  • The Protective Role of Oleuropein Aglycone against Pesticide-Induced Toxicity in a Human Keratinocytes Cell Model

    The extensive use of agricultural pesticides to improve crop quality and yield significantly increased the risk to the public of exposure to small but repeated doses of pesticides over time through various routes, including skin, by increasing the risk of disease outbreaks. Although much work was conducted to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture, little attention was paid to prevention, which could reduce the toxicity of pesticide exposure by reducing its impact on human health. Extra…

  • Oleacein: A comprehensive review of its extraction, purification, absorption, metabolism, and health effects

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in high-risk groups and the polyphenols in EVOO play an important health effect on it. As one of the most abundant polyphenols in EVOO, oleacein (OLEA) has many health benefits. However, there is no review article that focus comprehensively on OLEA, and most articles have limited data and information on OLEA. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of all available studies, to present and compare…

  • EFSA Health Claims-Based Virgin Olive Oil Shelf-Life

    The consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been linked to various health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. EVOO contains triglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids, as well as minor compounds, such as polar phenols and tocopherols, which play a crucial nutritional and biological role. The composition of these minor compounds is affected by various factors that distinguish EVOOs from lower-quality olive oils. The European Parliament approved Regulation…

  • Evaluation of the Bioaccessible Fraction of T-2 Toxin from Cereals and Its Effect on the Viability of Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Tyrosol

    The bioaccessibility of mycotoxins is an important factor that has to be considered when assessing the risk they pose to human health. Bioactive compounds like phenolics could play a protective role against the toxic effects of contaminants. In this work, the bioaccessible fraction of the T-2 toxin (T-2) contained in breakfast cereals and its effect on the viability of Caco-2 cells were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of tyrosol (a polyphenol abundant in EVOO) on T-2-induced cytotoxicity…

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EVOO and Polyphenols

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EVOO and Polyphenols – Review

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rss EVOO, Oleocanthal and Oleacein – Review

  • Anti-Cancer, Anti-Angiogenic, and Anti-Atherogenic Potential of Key Phenolic Compounds from Virgin Olive Oil

    The Mediterranean diet, renowned for its health benefits, especially in reducing cardiovascular risks and protecting against diseases like diabetes and cancer, emphasizes virgin olive oil as a key contributor to these advantages. Despite being a minor fraction, the phenolic compounds in olive oil significantly contribute to its bioactive effects. This review examines the bioactive properties of hydroxytyrosol and related molecules, including naturally occurring compounds (-)-oleocanthal and…

  • Olea europaea L-derived secoiridoids: Beneficial health effects and potential therapeutic approaches

    Over the years, health challenges have become increasingly complex and global and, at the beginning of the 21st century, chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological, and chronic respiratory diseases, as well as cancer and diabetes, have been identified by World Health Organization as one of the biggest threats to human health. Recently, antimicrobial resistance has also emerged as a growing problem of public health for the management of infectious diseases. In this scenario, the…

  • Oleocanthal, an Antioxidant Phenolic Compound in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO): A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Its Potential in Inflammation and Cancer

    BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is linked to various health benefits, especially the consumption of olive oil as a key component. Multiple studies highlight its advantages, particularly due to its fatty acid composition and additional components like phenolic compounds. A significant antioxidant compound, oleocanthal, known for its antioxidant properties, has gained attention in the pharmaceutical industry for its anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. It shows promise in addressing…

  • An Appraisal of the Oleocanthal-Rich Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and Its Potential Anticancer and Neuroprotective Properties

    Dietary consumption of olive oil represents a key pillar of the Mediterranean diet, which has been shown to exert beneficial effects on human health, such as the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases like cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, among others. These health benefits are partly mediated by the high-quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), which is produced mostly in Mediterranean countries and is directly made from olives, the fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.)….

  • Oleacein: A comprehensive review of its extraction, purification, absorption, metabolism, and health effects

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in high-risk groups and the polyphenols in EVOO play an important health effect on it. As one of the most abundant polyphenols in EVOO, oleacein (OLEA) has many health benefits. However, there is no review article that focus comprehensively on OLEA, and most articles have limited data and information on OLEA. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of all available studies, to present and compare…

  • Oleocanthal – Characterization, production, safety, functionality and in vivo evidences

    Oleocanthal, OC, 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethyl(3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate, is a natural organic compound exclusively found in Olea europaea L. (Oleoaceae), such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Chemically, it is considered a monophenolic secoiridoid, taking part of the validated antioxidants naturally occurring in some plant-based foods. In this review, the aim is to summarize the identity and characteristics of this molecule, where it can be obtained (isolation from the natural…

  • Therapeutic potential of flavonoids in the management of obesity-induced Alzheimer’s disease: an overview of preclinical and clinical studies

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. It can lead to a plethora of disorders, including diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, musculoskeletal problems, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative abnormalities. Obesity has also been linked to neurological diseases such as cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), caused by oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the production of reactive oxygen free…

  • An overview of natural products that modulate the expression of non-coding RNAs involved in oxidative stress and inflammation-associated disorders

    Oxidative stress is a state in which oxidants are produced in excess in the body’s tissues and cells, resulting in a biological imbalance amid the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) from redox reactions. In case of insufficient antioxidants to balance, the immune system triggers signaling cascades to mount inflammatory responses. Oxidative stress can have deleterious effects on major macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, hence, Oxidative stress and…

  • Effects of the Mediterranean diet polyphenols on cancer development

    Globally, the second most common mortality reason is cancer. There are two types of risk factors for cancer: intrinsic (unmodifiable) and non-intrinsic (modifiable). Bad lifestyle behaviors are among the exogenous non-intrinsic risk factors that can be related to 30-50% of cancer development risk, among which can be counted the Western lifestyle. On the contrary, a potentially good lifestyle model to prevent cancer is the Mediterranean diet (MD), which is a plant-based nutrition model. The…

  • Phenolic Compounds from Virgin Olive Oil: Approaches for Their Synthesis and Analogues

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the main fat consumed by populations in the Mediterranean basin, and phenolic compounds, minor components of this fat, are known to be responsible for diverse health benefits when consumed in a regular diet. According to numerous investigations, these benefits are mostly related to phenols such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol and secoiridoid derivatives such as ligstroside, oleuropein, oleocanthal and oleacein. These compounds are present in low concentrations, and for…

  • Metabolism and Bioavailability of Olive Bioactive Constituents Based on In Vitro, In Vivo and Human Studies

    Consumption of olive products has been established as a health-promoting dietary pattern due to their high content in compounds with eminent pharmacological properties and well-described bioactivities. However, their metabolism has not yet been fully described. The present critical review aimed to gather all scientific data of the past two decades regarding the absorption and metabolism of the foremost olive compounds, specifically of the phenylalcohols hydroxytyrosol (HTyr) and tyrosol (Tyr)…

  • A biochemical perspective on the fate of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in vivo

    The chemistry of the phenolic compounds found in virgin olive oil (VOO) is very complex due, not only to the different classes of polyphenols that can be found in it, but, above all, due to the existence of a very specific phenol class found only in oleaceae plants: the secoiridoids. Searching in the Scopus data base the keywords flavonoid, phenolic acid, lignin and secoiridoid, we can find a number of 148174, 79435, 11326 and 1392 research articles respectively, showing how little is devote to…

  • The clinical impact of an extra virgin olive oil enriched mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome: Lights and shadows of a nutraceutical approach

    For years it has been established that the only truly effective treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS) is lifestyle modification to prevent its cardiovascular (e.g., coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis), metabolic (e.g., diabetes mellitus), and hepatic (e.g., steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) complications. The focal points of this approach are to increase physical activity and intake of a diet characterized by high quantities of fruits, vegetables, grains, fish, and low-fat…

  • Natural Therapeutics in Aid of Treating Alzheimer’s Disease: A Green Gateway Toward Ending Quest for Treating Neurological Disorders

    The current scientific community is facing a daunting challenge to unravel reliable natural compounds with realistic potential to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The reported compounds/drugs mostly synthetic deemed the reliability and therapeutic potential largely due to their complexity and off-target issues. The natural products from nutraceutical compounds emerge as viable preventive therapeutics to fill the huge gap in treating neurological disorders….

  • Bringing the Spotlight to Tau and TDP-43 in Frontotemporal Dementia: A Review of Promising Chemical Compounds

    There is a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases, among which frontotemporal dementia stands out. These are the second most frequent cause of dementia in the world and demand the search for an effective treatment. This disease is linked to the abnormal behavior of proteins, which group together to form insoluble aggregates. It has been shown that the tau protein and TDP-43 are the main proteins involved in these pathologies. This article details 11 compounds already used in different…

  • Therapeutic Properties and Use of Extra Virgin Olive Oil in Clinical Nutrition: A Narrative Review and Literature Update

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a cornerstone of the Mediterranean diet (MedD). In this narrative review, we synthesize and illustrate the various characteristics and clinical applications of EVOO and its components-such as oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol, and oleuropein-in the field of clinical nutrition and dietetics. The evidence is split into diet therapy, oleic acid-based enteral nutrition formulations and oral supplementation formulations, oleic acid-based parenteral nutrition, and…

  • Influence of Olive Oil and Its Components on Breast Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasia and a leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern with protective effects in several chronic diseases, including breast cancer. This diet is characterized by the consumption of abundant plant foods and olive oil as the principal source of fat, which is considered one of the main components with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects….

  • Impact of Physical Activity and Natural Bioactive Compounds on Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a world-wide public health problem. Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction (ED) and vascular calcifications are clinical features of CKD patients that increase cardiovascular (CV) mortality. CKD-related CV disease pathogenic mechanisms are not only associated with traditional factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, but also with ED, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation. The typical comorbidities of CKD contribute to reduce the…

  • Potential of olive oil and its phenolic compounds as therapeutic intervention against colorectal cancer: a comprehensive review

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of death across the world and incidence rate of CRC increasing alarmingly each passing year. Diet, genomic anomalies, inflammation and deregulated signalling pathways are among the major causes of CRC. Because of numerous side effects of CRC therapies available now, researchers all over the world looking for alternative treatment/preventive strategy with lesser/no side effects. Olive oil which is part of Mediterranean diet contains numerous…

  • Olive Oil Consumption can Prevent Non-communicable Diseases and COVID-19: A Review

    The Mediterranean diet is appraised as the premier dietary regimen, and its espousal is correlated with the prevention of degenerative diseases and extended longevity. The consumption of olive oil stands out as the most peculiar feature of the Mediterranean diet. Olive oil rich in various bioactive compounds like oleanolic acid, oleuropein, oleocanthal, and hydroxytyrosol is known for its antiinflammatory as well as cardioprotective property. Recently in silico studies have indicated that…

  • Potenziali usi dei secoiridoidi dell'olio d'oliva per la prevenzione e il trattamento del cancro: una rassegna narrativa di studi preclinici

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a combination of foods mainly rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients that have been shown to have many health-enhancing effects. Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important component of the MD. The importance of EVOO can be attributed to phenolic compounds, represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, and to secoiridoids, which include oleocanthal, oleacein, oleuropein, and ligstroside (along with the aglycone and glycosidic…

  • Beneficial effects of olive oil and Mediterranean diet on cancer physio-pathology and incidence

    Virgin olive oil is a characteristic component and the main source of fat of the Mediterranean diet. It is a mix of high-value health compounds, including monounsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid), simple phenols (such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol), secoiridoids (such as oleuropein, oleocanthal), flavonoids, and terpenoids (such as squalene). Olive oil consumption has been shown to improve different aspects of human health and has been associated with a lower risk of cancer. However, the…

  • A review on management of cardiovascular diseases by olive polyphenols

    Noncommunicable diseases have increasingly grown the cause of morbidities and mortalities worldwide. Among them, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the major contributor to deaths. CVDs are common in the urban community population due to the substandard living conditions, which have a significant impact on the healthcare system, and over 23 million human beings are anticipated to suffer from the CVDs before 2030. At the moment, CVD physicians are immediately advancing both primary and…

  • The Emerging Role of Nutraceuticals and Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    One of the major challenges of medical sciences has been finding a reliable compound for the pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As most of the drugs directed to a variety of targets have failed in finding a medical solution, natural products from Ayurvedic medicine or nutraceutical compounds emerge as a viable preventive therapeutics’ pathway. Considering that AD is a multifactorial disease, nutraceutical compounds offer the advantage of a multitarget approach, tagging…

  • Meccanismi molecolari antitumorali dell'oleocantale

    Cancer is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Current cancer therapies are associated with serious side effects, which further damage patients’ health. Therefore, the search for new anticancer agents with no toxic effects on normal and healthy cells is of great interest. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated that oleocanthal (OLC), a phenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil, exhibits antitumor activity in various tumor models. However, the underlying mechanisms and…

  • Mediterranean Diet Nutrients to Turn the Tide against Insulin Resistance and Related Diseases

    Insulin resistance (IR), defined as an attenuated biological response to circulating insulin, is a fundamental defect in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and is also linked to a wide spectrum of pathological conditions, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cognitive impairment, endothelial dysfunction, chronic kidney disease (CKD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and some endocrine tumors, including breast cancer. In obesity, the unbalanced production of pro- and…

  • Potential Protective Role Exerted by Secoiridoids from Olea europaea L. in Cancer, Cardiovascular, Neurodegenerative, Aging-Related, and Immunoinflammatory Diseases

    Iridoids, which have beneficial health properties, include a wide group of cyclopentane [c] pyran monoterpenoids present in plants and insects. The cleavage of the cyclopentane ring leads to secoiridoids. Mainly, secoiridoids have shown a variety of pharmacological effects including anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, neuroprotective, anti-cancer, and anti-obesity, which increase the interest of studying these types of bioactive compounds in depth. Secoiridoids are…

  • Proprietà benefiche dell'oleocantale e dell'oleaceina: due secoiridoidi dall'olio extra vergine di oliva

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, including the secoiridoids oleocanthal (OLC) and oleacein (OLE), are attracting attention because of their beneficial effects on health. Data on OLC and OLE bioavailability are scarce, as most research on EVOO polyphenols has concentrated on hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. Consequently, relevant goals for future research are the elucidation of OLC and OLE bioavailability and finding evidence for their beneficial effects through pre-clinical and…

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