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Active-Italia: Effects of Hydroxytyrosol on Atherosclerotic Lesions in apoE-Deficient Mice

Effects of Hydroxytyrosol on Atherosclerotic Lesions in apoE-Deficient Mice

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The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality despite the high intake of fat, mainly derived from olive oil. Olive oil is a fruit juice with a complex composition where triglycerides of oleic acid are the main component but other biologically active compounds such as tocopherols, phenols, phytosterols, and triterpenoids are also present.

These components might be responsible for the benefits of virgin olive oil in animal models and in human studies.

Hydroxytyrosol, as a simple phenol or conjugate form, is present in a particularly high concentration in extra virgin olive oil, representing around 10% of the total phenolic content (5–80 mg kg–1).

Several studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol is absorbed and excreted in urine as a response to the intake of virgin olive oil as well as to the intake of oily and aqueous preparations.

Hydroxytyrosol has been recovered in all lipoprotein fractions, except in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), after extra virgin olive oil ingestion.

Studies have been carried out on hydroxytyrosol in the in vivo atherosclerosis process using the apoE-deficient mouse as a model of spontaneous atherosclerosis development. These animals develop severe atherosclerosis on a regular low-fat/low-cholesterol diet. The progression and histopathology of lesions in this animal model show similar features to those observed in humans and other species.

Source of the Article

María Victoria Martínez-Gracia, Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez, JesúsOsada

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